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the following takes place betweenyear 235 and 337 but that is another story ancient rome 7: the crisis of iii century and the empire cristiano the crisis of the century iii the crisis of the third century brought a period of 50 years of military anarchy, in which many generals fought to reach the power of the empire in favor for its soldiers. it was a period of crisis where people were fed up with the lack of control, taxes and poverty, and many people began to leave the cities to go to the countryside to earn a living. and there was almost no 100% roman senators, because most had been eliminated in various purges.
now the aristocracy was mostly formed by the equestrians arrivals, mostly eastern, african and illyrian army. its functions became increasingly expensive than executive. "and to live the life that life is two days" the first of these emperors soldier was maximino el tracio, but only lasted three years. the year 238 was known as the year of the 6 emperors. gordian i, his son gordian ii, pupienus and balbino lasted just a few months. gordian iii, 13 years old, no one managed to kill up to 244. is said that during a battle in persia was killed by his prefect filipo el ãrabe, and this took its place. the most famous which made philip was celebrating a magnificent celebrations for the millennium of the founding of rome. however, the legions of the danube rose to decius as emperor, and after a battle near verona this was done with the power. during his reign he saw the first invasion of the goths documented.
"my god, what stress. i'm getting nervous i" its gothic king cniva began to wreak havoc in many parts of moesia, and the battle of abritus the emperor decius and his son died. behind him came treboniano galo, who ruled first by the son of his predecessor, hostilian, and then with his own son, volusiano. "no men 'enterao not nemoh' enterao" emiliano, governor of the danube, stood up against them and took them to the post. his troops killed him three months later and then became a commander of the rhine to power: valeriano. the first thing he did was put his son gallienus co-emperor, and sent to the rhine to reject a major invasion of alemanni and franks to gaul. meanwhile, valeriano tried to cope with the persian shapur i, who had managed to take antioch. the emperor managed to retake the city, but when he went to negotiate with the persian king was betrayed and captured,
and he ended up in jail and skinning gundeshapur around the year 260. "bah, we are. huh? can we get up, huh? can we" taking advantage of the weakness of the empire after the capture of valeriano, a guy named posthumus that year he decided to secede from rome to found the gallic empire after killing the emperor's grandson, salonino. and not only that. it turns out that shortly after, in 268, also taking advantage of the death of gallienus, the daughter of the former prince of palmira, zenobia, became independent form the empire of palmira. palmira became the commercial center of east where all caravan routes converged. this queen zenobia was very famous for its beauty, its culture, to beautify palmira and achieve wrest egypt to rome. imagine the anger. after the death of gallienus came to power a series of very fierce soldier emperors who came from illyria.
the first was claudius ii gothic, named after his great victory against the goths at nish, who were also supported by heruli, dacian and gepids. hispania and also snatched the rhone valley from the hands of gallic empire. everything seemed to improve with him but died of plague. its general lucio domicio aureliano replaced him after the suicide's brother claudio, quintilo. aureliano also achieved great victories. first against marcomanni and alamanni in germany, where he built the famous wall aureliano, and then against the empire of palmira. he allied himself with the arabs of the desert and together they defeated zenobia at the battle of emesa, in syria, and besieged the capital. it is said that the queen and her son ended up in rome and it was dedicated to philosophy. it seems that it was not bad. "yes, yes ... well, well, well ..." the last military achievement of aureliano was to recover the gallic empire from the hands of tã©trico i. aureliano then began a series of economic reforms. he got a lot to pay taxes annonas,
he settled barbarians in roman lands, raised the aurelian walls in rome, created new coins ... and rose to deus sol invictus as the great divinity aunaba the greco-roman and oriental worship in one. he pissed off people and was stabbed in thrace way to persia. with this came the chaos of emperors to rome. tacitus elder brother floriano, probo, caro, and the children of this: numeriano and carino. none managed to restore stability to the empire. that work would be for a cavalry commander of croatia today called valerio diocles, better known as diocletian. "why, lord, why?" diocletian and the tetrarchy 284, emperor diocletian in nicomedia appointed. the first thing he did was loaded to carino, but he did not want to be the only emperor. he understood that a great empire needed more leaders, so first put co-emperor maximiano,
and then, after years pacifying the borders, in 293, he established the tetrarchy. "how?" now there would be four emperors at once, two augusti, or supreme emperors and two caesars, as vice-emperors, that would happen to her august after 20 years of government or in case of death, naming new caesars turn. this diocletian sought stability, and the principality of augustus was becoming the overlooked, an absolute monarchy of oriental roll and divine character. he is trying that the emperor was not seen as a simple soldier to be able to dispatch smoothly, but as a messenger of the gods. logically, this new style of government was best seen in the east than in the west. diocletian ruled from nicomedia and antioch, as more tugging east,
while maximiano ruled the south-western part of the capital and took mediolanum, milan. the caesar galerius ruled the balkans from sirmium or thessalonica; and constantius ruled from trier gaul and britain and may spain. rome was gradually losing its importance. in fact, his huge diocletian palace was built in split, croatia. its walls still stand today, and in fact an entire city neighborhood is within them. "you thought that here we had no culture?" diocletian achieved great victories against the sarmatians on the danube, maximiano against the berbers, constantius against pirates franks and saxons and galerio to narsã©s defeated persia and took ctesiphon in 298. however, the emperor administrative changes were not so famous, it greatly complicated the bureaucracy. he grouped the provinces of the empire in 12 dioceses, each administered by a vicar, who ruled over provincial governors.
it also imposed maximum prices, which encouraged the black market and even increased the legions to 60. a burrada which was accompanied by a tax increase. in each diocese there was also a dux, top military under the command of the legions of that territory. this title would become duke. in addition also he made one of the greatest persecution of christians in history, with church burnings and killings everywhere. all this achieved just the opposite, since christianity began to petarlo very strong from these years. not all christians were equal. during these years a berber parish priest of alexandria named arius said that jesus was not god, but only sent him, and that the holy trinity was cool not much ... come on, who created a schism known as arianism. "basically all i sweat cock" also a persian sage named mani founded manichaeism, a religion with which he tried to rival christianity, zoroastrianism and even buddhism. the christian empire of constantine i
305. it had been almost 20 years since diocletian and maximian abdicate played them. galerio and constantius were promoted to august while new caesars were maximino daya and severo ii under the influence of galerius. chlorine wanted to have placed his son constantino and maximiano his, maxentius, and this move began to crumble tetrarquãa. constantius died the next year fighting the picts, and his son constantine was hailed augustus in the northwestern part of the empire, but did not touch him. galerio said that according to the tetrarchic pact had to ascend to his friend augusto severo ii. constantine but was finally accepted as ceasing. and to make matters worse maximiano and his son maxentius decided to give a coup in rome for the lad was emperor. severo ii tried to recover italy but ended up dead. after a lot of power struggles in the year 308 the conference of carnuntum was held to try to bring some order, and the empire was a trusted friend of galerius, licinius as augustus of the west and with constantine as his caesar.
galieno remained august with maximino dayo cease. but this agreement did not last shit. everyone wanted to be augusti, including the outlawed maxentius, who continued to dominate half of italy. and above the vicar of africa, domitius alexander proclaimed himself emperor in carthage, and maxentius had to go there to kill him. in 310 maxentius decided to ally with daya while betraying maximiano constantine, who finished siding with licinio. so, the man laid siege to his old friend maximian at massilia, now marseilles, and this ended up committing suicide. the following year galerius died naturally and constantine then went to rome to finish what he started. after the battle of the milvian bridge, located very close to the gates of rome, maxentius drowned in the tiber ended, and constantine became emperor of the west. apparently it was before this battle when constantine had a vision and immediately ordered his troops to use the crismã³n, greek symbol of christ.
until then he was a pagan, although it seems that his mother, helena, wife of chlorine if he believed in god. in fact, it seems that the woman went to the holy land to seek vera cruz and the reliquary of the magi. therefore, helena is the patron of archeology. "how cool, how cool" constantine and licinius were together by maximino daya east. it was in 313 when he defeated licinius in the battle of tzirallum. licinio now happened to rule the rest of the empire. the two emperors managed to take more or less well and create cool things together. for example, they signed the edict of milan, who accepted christianity and forbade pursuit. christians could now get into politics, and officially established the bishops of rome, that is, the popes, with melquiades to his head. they built the lateran basilica to be his residence, and later raise the old st. peter's basilica, where this was martyred on the vatican hill. "amen"
constantine's monarchy acquired a theocratic character, and constantine began to behave and dress like the ancient oriental monarchs. he introduced some economic reforms, including the creation of the solid. and also in the army. the legions came to be formed by only 1,000 men, and he beats them franks and alemanni on the rhine and goths, dacians and sarmatians in the dunubio. many people jumped into his army and even became christians. and even he had run-ins with shapur ii in persia, as it saw the christian arabs of its territory as a threat and began killing them. "my god, this is hell, i do not feel my legs" another who saw christianity was evil licinio, who in 324 began a persecution against them. constantine was angry with him, declared war and defeated him in adrianople; licinio and went to byzantium hell out. emperor besieged this city and his son crispus killed him in the naval battle of crisã³polis.
constantine became sole emperor, and was freaking out with byzantium, it was a very good strategic city. this is why what began to alter and modernize it. he raised a palace, a forum, a hippodrome, a basilica ... and even changed its name. now byzantium constantinople, the city of constantine, would be called and would be the new capital of the empire, moving to rome. "but with respect, huh?" it took place shortly after the council of nicaea, in which constantine assembled all the bishops to unify the christian dogma and avoid schisms and shit. who by the way, pope sylvester i went from going. they were sentenced to many pagan gods, donatismo and also arian christianity, although the emperor would be baptized before he died of eusebio, an arian bishop. christian bishops of the city of constantinople would gain much more importance, and they would be known as patriarchs of constantinople, something like the popes of the orthodox church.
dates for the best-known christian celebrations, such as easter or christmas, were also established to replace the sol invictus. and he declared sunday a day of rest, dedicated to the sun, hence sunday. "now, rejoice" however, it seems that constantino that commandment was not much with him. he killed his son crispus because he thought he was going to betray him, but then learned that the rumor had been spread by his wife fausta, because he was jealous that his stepson was the favorite of his father and his successor. emperor punished by boiling it in a bathtub. "for poor lady" constantino died in 337, and divided his empire among three sons by fausta: constantine ii, constantius ii and constans. the empire was fine, the economy was stable, and the children decided that the best they could do was kill each other.
we will see in the last episode of ancient rome.